Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a multi-functional drug owing to its lysosomotropic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, antithrombotic, antitumoral (pronounced effects on autophagy and apoptosis processes) and beneficial metabolic properties (improved lipid profiles, decreased insulin resistance). We know that chronic low-dose HCQ therapy has been successfully used in a variety of chronic diseases such as rheumatological and dermatological disorders. Additionally, with all these effects mentioned above and showing synergism, HCQ can also be useful mostly as an adjuvant in the management of many chronic metabolic disorders, serious life-threatening conditions such as cardiovascular, neurological, oncological and infectious diseases, as well as their accompanying morbidities. More recently, this former drug, whose effectiveness has been shown in the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has entered the spotlight again. Ongoing clinical trials testing HCQ in new indications and challenging diseases are still receiving great attention. In this article, the mechanisms of action, current clinical uses and new indications of HCQ therapy have been overviewed with a comprehensive literature review.
Antimalarial, Hydroxychloroquine, Drug repurposing, Novel coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19